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漢英口譯中表達多樣性淺析

文章來源:翻譯室  發布時間:2016-08-03

    漢英口譯中,譯員應在同一語境下盡可能豐富目標語言的表達方式,避免表達的機械化和單一性。從以下例子可以看出,源語言講話人的意思可以在目標語中實現多種形式的表達:
    一、表示“增長”或“上升”的詞語
    1. Grow: to increase in size,number, strength or quality  擴大;增加;增強
    The company’s profits grew by 5% last year.
    去年公司的利潤增加了5%。
    In the second quarter, we have seen smooth growth of the domestic demand, which is a key pillar of Chinese economy.
    第二季度,作為中國經濟重要支柱的內需實現平穩增長。
    2. Increase(動詞): to become or to make sth greater in amount, number, value, etc. 增長;增多;增加
    The rate of inflation increased by 2%.
    通貨膨脹率增長了2%。
    We need to increase productivity.
    我們需要提高生產力。
    Increase(名詞): a rise in the amount, number or value of sth 增長;增多;增加
    An increase of nearly 20%
    近20%的增長
    3. Surge(動詞): (of prices, profits,etc.) to suddenly increase in value 物價、利潤等急劇上升;飛漲;激增
    Share prices surged.
    股價猛漲。
    Surge(名詞): a sudden increase in the amount or number of sth (數量上)急劇上升,激增
    We are having trouble keeping up with the recent surge in demand.
    我們難以滿足近來迅猛增長的需求。
    4. Jump(動詞): to rise suddenly by a large amount  突升;猛漲
    Sales jumped from $2.7 billion to $3.5 billion.
    銷售額從27億美元猛增至35億美元。
    5. Soar(動詞): to rise very quickly  急升;猛增
    Unemployment has soared to 18%.
    失業率猛升到了18%。
    6. Rise(動詞): to increase in amount or number(數量)增加;提高
    For the first half of 2016, the country's CPI rose (by) 2.1 percent on an annual basis, while this year's annual target was set at around three percent.
    2016年上半年,我國消費者物價指數較去年同比增長2.1%,而今年全年增長目標為3%左右。
    7. Expand(動詞): to become greater in size, number or importance 增加、增強(尺碼、數量或是重要性)
    Gross domestic product expanded by 6.7% in the first half of this year, China's statistics bureau said.
    國家統計局數據顯示,我國國內生產總值今年上半年增長6.7%。
    二、表示“下降”或“減少”的詞語
    1. Decline(動詞): to become smaller, fewer, weaker, etc. 減少;下降;衰弱
    The number of tourists to the resort declined by 10% last year.
    去年這個景點的旅游人數減少了10%。
    Decline(名詞): a continuous decrease in the number, value, quality, etc. of sth (數量、價值、質量等的)減少、下降、衰退
    An increase in cars has resulted in the decline of public transport.
    私家車數量的增加導致了公共交通使用的減少。
    2. Dip(動詞): to go downwards or to a lower level 下降;下沉
    Sales for this quarter have dipped from $38.7 million to $33 million.
    本季度銷售額從3870萬美元下降到3300萬美元。
    Dip(名詞): a decrease in the amount or success of sth, usually for only a short period (通常指暫時的)減少、下降、衰退
    A sharp dip in profits
    利潤驟減
    3. Fall(動詞): to decrease in amount, number or strength(數量)減少,下降;(強度)減少
    Data showed that the company’s profits have fallen by 30%.
    數據顯示,公司的利潤減少了30%。
    Fall(名詞): a decrease in size, number, rate or level 減小;減少;降低
    A big fall in unemployment
    失業率大幅下降
    4. Slowdown: a reduction in speed or activity 減緩;減速
    The world's second-largest economy China has recently seen a slowdown in growth due to  weak demand at home and abroad, cooling investments and excess industrial capacity.
    由于國內外需求減弱、投資熱度下降和產能過剩,世界第二大經濟體中國近期經濟增長有所放緩。
    5. Tumble(動詞): to fall rapidly in value or amount(數量或價格)暴跌、驟降
    Oil prices tumbled again Wednesday.
    周三油價再次大幅下跌。
    Tumble(名詞): a sudden fall 暴跌
    Share prices took a sharp tumble following news of merger.
    兼并消息傳出,股價隨即暴跌。
    6. Plummet: to fall suddenly and quickly from a high level or position  暴跌;速降
    Major animal diseases are under control with incidence plummeting.
      隨著發病率急速下降,主要動物疾病得到控制。
    三、英語中表示“說”的詞語
    漢英口譯中,由于源語言結構較為復雜,且包含意義較為深刻,這就要求我們在理解源語言講話人態度及意思的基礎上,在目標語中選擇合適的詞匯,以此來提高用詞的準確度。外事英語口譯中,在流暢、達意的基礎上,提高選詞、用詞的準確度十分重要,在重要外事場合中甚至涉及雙方立場。
    最常用的為speak; say; tell三個詞,用法較為簡單,不再一一闡述。
    1. Zhu acknowledges that there are still many problems in the trial process.
    朱承認實驗過程中仍有很多問題。
    Acknowledge: to accept that sth is true 承認(屬實)
    2. Zhang added that government investment will continue to focus on infrastructure construction that affects quality of life.
    張接著說,政府將繼續加大在民生基礎設施建設方面的投資。
   Add: to say sth more; to make a further remark  補充說;繼續說
    3. He admitted his guilt to the police.
    他向警察承認了自己的罪行。
    Admit:to agree, often unwillingly, that sth is true  勉強承認;to say that you have done sth    wrong or illegal 承認(過錯、罪行)
    4. He affirmed to me that the statement was true.
    他斷言這份聲明屬實。
    Affirm: (formal) to sate firmly or publicly that sth is true or that you support sth strongly  肯定屬實;申明;斷言
    5. He is alleged to have mistreated the prisoners.
    他被指控虐待犯人。
    Allege: (often passive; formal) to state sth as a fact but without giving proof (未提供證據)斷言;聲稱
    6. The boy claimed to have told the truth.
    這個男孩聲稱自己說出了事實。
    Claim: to say sth is true although it has not been proved and other people may not believe it  宣稱;斷言;聲稱
    7. She complained that he had been rude to her.
    她抱怨他對自己很粗魯。
    8. The government has declared a state of emergency.
    政府已宣布進入緊急狀態。
    Declare: to say officially or publicly  公布;宣布;宣告
    9. He has already stated his intention to run for election.
    他聲明打算參加競選。
    State: to formally write or say sth, especially in a careful and clear way 陳述;說明
 

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